Centre for Development of Advanced Computing source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centre_for_Development_of_Advanced_Computing

Coordinates: 18°33′06″N 73°49′26″E / 18.551747°N 73.823750°E / 18.551747; 73.823750

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
C-DAC Logo
Established1988; 31 years ago
Field of research
High Performance Computing, Multi-lingual Computing and Heritage Computing, Professional Electronics, Software Technologies, Health Informatics, Education
AddressPune University Campus,
Ganesh Khind,
Pune - 411 007,
Maharashtra, India
LocationPune, India (headquarters)
NicknameC-DAC
Operating agency
Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India
Websitecdac.in

The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) is an Autonomous Scientific Society of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), of the Government of India.[1] The National Centre for Software Technology (NCST), ER&DCI and CEDTI were merged into C-DAC in 2003.[2][3] Since then C-DAC has been forging ahead with the vision to emerge as a premier R&D organisation for the design, development and deployment of world-class electronics and IT solutions for economic and human advancement.

With its first HPC mission in 1988 and subsequent delivery of PARAM series of supercomputers, C-DAC has been the forerunner of the ICT (Information & Communication technology) revolution in India. With a wide spectrum of expertise and core competencies in various ICT domains, many national-level initiatives are rolled out such as National Super-computing Mission, Microprocessor Development Programme, Mission for Developing Digitally Inclusive and Smart Community (DISC) with focus on Agriculture, Health and Education, Language Technology Applications such as Machine Translation, Cross-Lingual Information Access, Speech Technology, Professional Electronics Technologies like Microcontroller and DSP, Cyber Security and Cyber Forensics Applications based on Biometrics, Malware Analysis, Bio-Informatics Applications including Cancer Research using Artificial Intelligence etc.

The primary activity of C-DAC is research and development in specific areas of Information and Communication Technology and Electronics (ICTE). Therefore, C-DAC’s Technology Road-map is comprehensive in covering the aspects pertaining to Core Research, Research & Development, Applications and Services with five Mission Programmes namely Exascale Computing, Microprocessor and Quantum Computing, Artificial Intelligence and Language Computing, IoE, Dependable and Secure Computing and GenNext Applied Computing.

Contents

History[edit]

After being denied a Cray supercomputer by the United States in 1987, because it might have been used for military purposes, India started a programme to develop an indigenous supercomputer in collaboration with Russia.[4][dead link][5] Supercomputers were considered a double-edged weapon capable of assisting in the development of nuclear weapons.[6] For the purpose of achieving self-sufficiency in the field, C-DAC was established by the Department of Electronics in 1988. Mr. VIJAY Bhatkar was hired as the Director of C-DAC.[7] The project was given an initial run of 3 years and an initial funding of 30,00,00,000 as the same amount of money and time was usually expended to secure the purchase of a supercomputer from the US.[7] In 1990, a prototype was produced and was benchmarked at the 1990 Zurich Supercomputing Show (CONPAR 1990). It surpassed most other systems, placing second after US.[7]

The final result of the effort was the PARAM 8000, which was installed in 1991.[8] It is considered India's first supercomputer.

Research activities[edit]

Originally established to research and assemble High Performance Computers, the current research areas of C-DAC includes:

Supercomputing[edit]

Brain computing[edit]

5G, IoT, software-defined networking, and edge computing[edit]

Signal/video/image processing[edit]

Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, and Deep learning[edit]

Microprocessor and embedded systems[edit]

Quantum computing[edit]

Research and development[edit]

C-DAC Primarily being an R&D organisation keeps working on contemporary things with a driving practical application. Currently the segment has below mentioned things under its umbrella.

Robotics[edit]

Geo-Spatial[edit]

Cyber security and cyber forensics[edit]

Cyber threat management system[edit]

The system has large scale threat monitoring by deploying honeypot sensors at different Geo-locations. It handles-

  • Capturing, collection and enrichment of attack data
  • Zero-day threat collection
  • Evidence based knowledge, threat indicators
  • Action-oriented advice about an existing or emerging cyber menace or hazard to assets
  • Proactive cyber threat monitoring and dissemination
  • Cyber threat intelligence generation with confidence score
  • Contextual information of threat indicators
  • Deep learning methods for CTI (Computer Telephony Interface)

The system has some great features that makes it one of the best solutions in the field -

  • Support popular CTI formats such as MAEC, STIX 2.0 etc and REST API interface
  • Comprehensive attack data analysis
  • Fault tolerant and scalable big data architecture
  • High fidelity alerts on dashboard for critical/important CTI observations
  • Correlation and analysis engine

e-Vidur[edit]

Disruptive usage of social/mass media and web, polarizing inflammatory comments and infringement of privacy has made the cyber space unhealthy. C-DAC developed an Indigenous innovative analytics technology for in-depth understanding of the key facets of content characteristics, human interaction forms, essential technology ingredients and right choice of infrastructure. It uses Big data, sentiment analysis and semantic search with machine learning techniques. Target domain is social/mass media and web covering Indian and foreign languages.

The solution crawls social/mass media & web data on a single search interface and Automatically clusters and categorizes the content. Sentiment analysis and polarity detection happens with visualization. The solution offers real time and archival access for search & information fetching and analytics on multiple formats and sources from social & mass media. Holistic visualization is generated through integrated dashboard for sentiment analysis, news & wiki results and polarity detection with pie charts, geographical information, tag cloud etc. The entity profiling is done with user behavior prediction. The solution also provide report on comment, likes, and hottest/trending topics.

Language and heritage computing[edit]

India as a country has 22 scheduled languages besides the heritage languages and more than 100 widely used languages with different scripts. Despite this most of the content on the internet and ICT based solutions in India are available only in English. To overcome this The Indian heritage and Language computing IHLC at C-DAC, Bangalore, is engaged in design and development of language technology products for preserving, processing and propagating Indian Heritage texts and training the scholars on the products developed.

  • As part of the former, a preliminary NLU system for Sanskrit, called DESIKA, has been developed.
  • C-Vyasa Sanskrit authoring system has also been successfully completed with links to all Vidyasthanas.
  • Veda Ratnakara, a comprehensive package covering RgVeda, YajurVeda, SamaVeda is developed with browse, search and retrieve facilities for Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishad, Kramapatha, Padapatha etc.
  • The group is also involved in developing CD for RSkS to assist learning Sanskrit through Computer and Development of Analytical Tools for large, scientific knowledgebase in Grid Computing Environment.
  • Pandulipi Samshodhaka, a manuscript processing tool, is developed for processing of manuscripts. The software is useful to scholars in creating critical edition and publishing the manuscripts.

Accessibility[edit]

C-DAC has been working on enhancing the accessibility for FOSS (Free & Open Source Software) Desktops. The aim of the project is to study the field of accessibility with respect to the needs and the relevant technologies and identify the needs in terms of FOSS development, develop software solutions suitable for Indian environments based on FOSS for specific types of disabilities, formulate guidelines for software applications to support accessibility, and plan and organize training programs in this area.

Some of the deliverables in this field are

  • Predictive writing tool integrated with the desktop.
  • Screen Reader based full desktop including office, browser, etc.
  • Development of speech-based input mechanisms.
  • Enhancing the desktop to cater to people with cognitive disabilities.

Blockchain[edit]

A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records called blocks that stores the data in a chronological and immutable way. Each block contains the transaction data, timestamp and the cryptographic hash of the previous block. Blockchain is a Distributed ledger technology (DLT) which is maintained on a peer-to-peer network which works on a consensus mechanism for communication and validating new blocks.

C-DAC has developed a permissioned blockchain based platform for Proof-of-Existence of documents called 'Abhedya' which is being offered as a service. The POE blockchain based platform will generate the cryptographic hash of any document and store it in the blockchain along with timestamp. This will help in proving that the digital artefact existed at a particular date and time. The system provides easy, safe and secure storage of confidential and important documents. The platform records and maintains the digital hash of the document in a tamper-proof manner. The issued receipt include hash and an embedded QR code which can be used for future verification.

Bioinformatics, Computational fluid dynamics, Seismic data processing and earth science[edit]

Applications[edit]

C-DAC has developed a wide range of software applications across different areas. Some of them are listed below:

Agriculture[edit]

C-DAC has been working on a lot of applications that can enhance the productivity and profitability of Indian farmers and make their lives easier at the same time. There are various factors that can affect the farming and quality of crops like weather and soil conditions, pests and other crop diseases. Then again they face issues while harvesting crop as grains and vegetables are graded based on extrinsic quality parameters like shape, size, color and in some cases aroma. C-DAC has successfully deployed some of the application and farmers are benefiting from them.

Quality analysis of food grains, vegetables and fruits[edit]

There are five applications under this broader category which are automated systems as per Indian Standards to grade the quality of food grains and vegetables as manual grading can be subjective and error-prone. The systems are easy for field deployment, easy to operate and reduce dependency on skilled manpower.

Annadarpan Smart & Annadarpan Dynamic - These tools are for the instant analysis of quality of Rice, Parboiled rice, Wheat and Pulses based on count and correlation with weight. Devices are portable systems with scanners and controlled illumination.

Ammar - Its a portable system along with a detachable sample preparation water bath which captures the aroma of Basmati rice under controlled environment.

CT-Vieu - Its conveyorized vision inspection system for quality estimation of chilli under controlled illumination.

Apple Sense - Portable system for quality assessment of apples based on fusion of acoustic and image analysis.

These devices have made useful data made available to remote users on virtual marketing platforms with nationwide outreach. They also ensure right price of commodities to farmers and shield them from intermediaries.

Raiser[edit]

Its a field deployable low cost IoT technology in agricultural fields which is easy to use and can be customized according to the users requirements. The device send personalized advisories to farmers in local languages regarding their crop health for better and scientific management practices, like pest and disease forewarning for different crops based on micro-climatic data, optimal fertigation and irrigation requirements based on soil health and type & plant requirements. This will lead to water conservation and reduction in input costs to improve the yield.

Resham Darshan[edit]

A machine vision solution for color analysis of Silk Yarns and grading is a revolutionary equipment to resolve the challenges associated with silk yarns as manual sorting of individual hanks with naked eye is a tedious task also the appearance of silk yarns changes with the change in the source and intensity of light. The solution has used technologies like digital image processing, machine learning for building color template and rotational invariant color analysis. It leads to enhanced accuracy with instant results.

Power sector[edit]

Health informatics[edit]

The aim behind the healthcare technologies is to help improve the quality of healthcare, reduce the costs, reduce errors and increase efficiency. C-DAC has developed several technologies and software/hardware solutions in this area; many of which are deployed and are in practice. One of the successful technologies is

Mercury Nimbus Suite
It is a cloud enabled EHR/EMR (Electronic Health Record or Electronic Medical Record) and Telemedicine solution enabling healthcare delivery at remote locations, interaction of remote patients and doctors with specialists, robust security mechanism for data protection. The solution offers In-browser imaging features, audio/video conferencing, text chat and scratchpad with multilingual Interface and data entry.

e-Governance[edit]

E-governance is the integration of Information & Communication Technology in all the processes, that encapsulates the finer points of governance such as citizen centricity, service orientation and transparency. C-DAC has worked on various technologies with an aim of strengthening national technological capabilities in the area of Free and open source software(FOSS). There are following products/services developed by C-DAC for better e-governance.

BOSS (Bharat Operation System Solutions)[edit]

Developed under NRCFOSS (National software solution for free and open source software) and promoted by MeitY(Ministry of electronics and information technology) is an OS which provides enterprise level management and support and is highly customizable and secure for client specific requirements. BOSS is an Indian GNU/Linux distribution developed by CDAC and is customized to suit Indian's digital environment. It supports most of the Indian languages.

BOSS makes it easier to migrate from any proprietary OS to GNU/Linux platform and hence serves generic adaptability. The solution offerings are Desktop variants, Enterprise variants, Application stack and a cloud suite Meghdoot.

e-Registration[edit]

An indigenous integrated stamp and registration software for automation of document registration ,marriage registration, society and firm registration with a bilingual interface. Other features are automation of fees and stamp duty calculations and property valuations based on predefined templates. The solution provides seamless integration with allied departments like land records, treasury, panchayat and municipal corporation level. The registered documents can be digitally archived centrally. There are multiple delivery channels - physical, online and through CSC's (Common service centres).

e-sign[edit]

It's an online digital signing service which provides a platform to citizens having a valid Aadhaar id and registered mobile number for digitally signing their electronic documents securely in a legally acceptable form compliant to Indian IT Act. The technology utilizes the services of UIDAI for online e-authentication and Aadhaar eKYC. Application service providers can integrate eSign service with their application to enable their users to electronically sign documents. The solutions is extremely secure and private as its only requires the thumbprint of the document for signing instead of the whole document. C-DAC is empaneled as eSign service provider(ESP) and a Certifying Authority (CA) under the guidelines of CCA ( Controller of certifying authority).

The service facilitates instantaneous signing of documents in a legally acceptable form, its convenient for users and also cost effective.

Mobile Seva[edit]

A National mobile governance initiative launched in cognizance of massive reach of mobile phones in India. The initiative is aimed at mainstreaming mobile governance in the country. It's an integrated, centrally available platforms to all government departments. The platform includes the following subsystems:

  1. Mobile e-Governance service delivery gateway
  2. SMS Gateway - Push, pull (short code and long code) and secure pull.
  3. M-Gov application store
  4. Mobile payment
  5. USSD - USSN (Unstructured Supplementary Services Notify), USSR (Unstructured Supplementary Services Response)
  6. IVRS - Push Outbound Call, Missed Call, Menu Driven Pull Call.

WAMIS (Work and Accounts Management Information System)[edit]

The approach to the product was to make a generic framework to track and monitor the physical and financial progress of various projects. The system includes budget preparation and management, preparation of work estimates, contractor bill generation, accounts preparation and management and comprehensive management information system. It allows integration with allied agencies and line departments.

Smart Cities[edit]

The solution developed in this category is on the line of direction given by the Government of India under Smart City Initiative.

Intelligent Transportation and Networking Solutions - Keeping in mind the overflowing traffic in urban areas leading to requirements of pedestrian safety, parking management, traffic violations monitoring and other controls are the need of the hour. C-DAC has designed Intelligent Transportation Management System (ITMS) which has various solutions to offer.

  • Wireless Traffic Signal Controller (WiTrac) is a vehicle actuated wireless traffic controller, It updates the time at traffic signals in real time based on demand by detecting presence of vehicles. It is can be operated on both solar & raw power. Operating on license free ISM Band, it is wireless to avoid the hassles of installation.
  • Traffic Monitoring and Management is a GIS based software for remote monitoring and management of traffic signal controllers. Its light weight supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for Adaptive traffic control system . It not only generates reports, views and graphs for analysis of traffic data but allows upload/download of traffic plan remotely.It is equipped with Alarm management (failure of signals can be alerted to authorities) and job scheduling (upload of plans/ green corridors etc) and API for third party software integration.
  • Composite Signal Control Strategy caters to non-lane based driving in mixed traffic flow conditions. The system is self calibrating with dynamic route selection. It is easy to install, and its a distributed system with high scalability.
  • Intelligent Red Light Violation Identification System automatically detects red light violations, provides digital evidence and also identifies multiple violations. The system also offers third party software integration for payment collection, third party automatic number plate recognition interface and e challan & online payment facility.

Emergency Response Support System - Emergency/distress response system for city/state or the nation with the dial no. 112 . This is to ensure safety of citizens at the time of distress and all types of emergency request by offering quick response time, seamless integration with existing services like police, health and fire etc. The app is available on mobile platforms and it offers emergency requests through voice call, SMS, e-mail, panic signal and whatsapp. Speedy assistance is provided through police, health, fire and other services using distributed dispatch facility, the service caters to the urgent needs of the victims through deployment of automated systems with intelligence and analytical capabilities.

Efficient communication and data transmission methods are used to quickly pass on alerts/ messages between control room and rescue points. In case of women and children, one can use the 112 India mobile app to activate SHOUT feature, which alerts registered volunteers in vicinity for immediate assistance apart from activating ERC (Emergency response centres).

Augmented reality, Virtual reality and Mixed reality[edit]

Strategic and defense sector[edit]

Services[edit]

The Services bouquet of C-DAC currently consist of following areas:

PARAM, HPC and cloud services[edit]

Param Shavak[edit]

Affordability of compute infrastructure at various academic and research institutions across the nation, lack of capacity building opportunities in HPC(High Performance Computing) technologies and limited knowledge repository w.r.t. HPC & parallel programming are some of the major challenge. Keeping that in mind C-DAC has developed Param Shavak, a ready to use HPC system pre-loaded with relevant system software and widely used HPC applications catering to scientific and engineering domain. It is targeted towards scientific and engineering applications, deep learning/machine learning and virtual reality based applications and is an easy to deploy solution with minimal data center requirement.

The application is designed to exploit parallel computing prowess and catalyse research using modelling, simulation and data analysis. It has dedicated access to avoid queue on large HPC systems thereby economizing time. The super computing box comes with 2 TF and above computing power, 96 GB of primary memory and 16 TB of secondary storage with customisable and scalable architecture.

Education and training[edit]

IoT lab kits[edit]

It's a comprehensive lab set up to enhance skills in Internet of Things. It can be used to setup the IoT/WSN lab in any academic institutions. The lab kits comes with various nodes supporting different protocols and Gateway. Software and API's are equipped to interface sensors to plug and play with nodes in implementing newer algorithms. The attached lab manual to streamline the learning process on various communication technologies and networking topologies.

The kit comprises of various communication devices - 6LoWPAN/ZigBee, Wi-Fi, BLE, and Gateway. They help in the proliferation of knowledge in MTech programs and enables undergraduates to take up projects. It also provides enhanced avenues for Publications and Field analysis model developments.

Digital preservation[edit]

Digital preservation is the digitization and maintenance of important documents, records, books and manuscripts. The process not only involves backing up of desired content but also maintaining the storage medium storing the data to ensure that the content is safe from any software failures or hardware obsolescence. C-DAC has also created a Digital Library with the aim of a platform with free-to-read, searchable collection of one million books, predominantly in Indian languages, available to everyone over the Internet. The result will be a unique resource accessible to anyone in the world 24x7, without regard to socioeconomic background or nationality.

Digitalaya Software - With the same aim of semantic access, long term readability, and interpretability C-DAC has designed and developed an electronic records management and archival system which is extremely helpful in preserving the digital records in terms of documents, spreadsheets, graphs, reports, research papers, digitally signed documents, e-mails, images, audio and video data. Digitalaya provides a built-in searchable database of record retention schedules comprising of over 2000 record types, also, it encrypts the private or confidential records which can be decrypted only by the authorized personnel.

Security audit[edit]

e-Sign/e-Praman[edit]

E-sign services as an e-sign service provider. (already discussed under e-governance).

ICTE services[edit]

Healthcare[edit]

Health care is one of the focus areas of the Government and C-DAC has been working on many projects related to healthcare for public welfare.

DRISTI (Diabetic Retinopathy Identification Software for Timely Intervention)[edit]

Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage caused to the retina by complications of diabetes which can eventually lead to blindness. DRISTI is a software which uses quantitative image analysis algorithms and AI to analyse retinal fundus images for DR lesions and direct DR suspicious cases for detailed ophthalmologist's review. The software automatically classifies the retina as either Non- DR or suspicious of DR. The other features are patient prioritizing using severity scoring, real-time image quality notification for re-imaging, provisions to capture images in BMP and TIFF formats and Detects retinal pathologies like microaneurisms, hemorrhages, exudates and cotton wool spots

[edit]

Branches[edit]

C-DAC branches and training centers include:[9]

Education and training[edit]

With the aim of creating skilled manpower in the country C-DAC provides several courses and training programs in the field of Electronics & ICT (Information and communication technology). Among these are the HPC certification course C-DAC Certified HPC Professional Certification Programme (CCHPCP).[12] C-DAC organises advanced computing diploma programs through the Advanced Computing Training School (ACTS) located all over India. The PG Diploma courses include specialisations in Embedded System Design, VLSI, etc.[13] Admissions to all PG Diploma courses of C-DAC are done through C-DAC's Computerised Common Admission Test (C-CAT). Every year, C-CAT is usually conducted in June (for August admissions) and December (for February admissions).[14]

Products and developments[edit]

Notable researchers and alumnus[edit]

Notable awards and accolades[edit]

Project(s)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "C-DAC Memorandum of Association". cdac.in/index.aspx?id=pdf_moa_16. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Merger of IT R&D bodies: a sign of the times". Express Computer. 19 May 2003. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  3. ^ "New domain name registration policy soon". The Economic Times. 26 October 2004. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  4. ^ "India orders review of US supercomputer deal". Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 25 March 2000. India started supercomputer development in the early eighties after it was denied the technology by the US.
  5. ^ Beary, Habib (1 April 2003). "India unveils huge supercomputer". BBC News. India began developing supercomputers in the late 1980s after being refused one by the US.
  6. ^ Nolan, Janne E. (1994). Global engagement: cooperation and security in the 21st century. p. 532. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  7. ^ a b c "God, Man And Machine". Outlook India. 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. "Three years, because that was about the time it took to import a supercomputer then, and Rs 34 crore because it was the prevailing prices of the machine," explains Bhatkar
  8. ^ Rajaraman, V. (1999). Super Computers (1st ed.). Universities Press. p. 75. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  9. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, sourced from C-DAC: Contact (cdac.in)
  10. ^ "C-DAC Delhi". Cdac.in. 16 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  11. ^ "C-DAC Thiruvananthapuram". Cdactvm.in. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b "C-DAC launches country's first HPC certification in high performance computing". The Times of India. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2008. The certification will be called the 'C-DAC Certified HPC Professional Certification Programme' (CCHPCP) and the exam will be conducted online every quarterly, on the lines of software programming certifications. There won't be any eligibility requirements to appear for the certification, and the paper will contain objective questions.
  13. ^ "CDAC ACTS homepage". Acts.cdac.in. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  14. ^ "CDAC C-CAT". AglaSem. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  15. ^ "C-DAC launches computing tools". Sakal Times. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  16. ^ "Two new software tools from C-DAC". The Times of India. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2008. Namescape is a search engine used on a pilot-basis in the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) project of the Union government.
  17. ^ "Garuda, the nationwide computer grid, takes wing". Livemint. 18 December 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  18. ^ "GARUDA". CTWatch. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Darpan". CDAC. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  20. ^ "Punarjjani". CDAC. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  21. ^ https://www.research.ibm.com/irl/cdachindi.html
  22. ^ "List of Padma Shri award recipients". Government of India. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  23. ^ "Home Page of Professor Dr. Rajkumar Buyya". Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  24. ^ "Srinivasan Ramani: Innovating for India". HP Labs. February 2002. Retrieved 15 September 2011. He played a pioneering role in bringing the first Internet connection to India in the 1980s
  25. ^ "HP Labs India: Past Directors". Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  26. ^ "Faculty: Mudur, Sudhir P." Concordia University. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  27. ^ "About: Management Team". Persistent Systems. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  28. ^ "Mobile Tele-Ophthalmology Units". Manthan Awards 2013
  29. ^ "e-SafeT".- Manthan Awards 2013
  30. ^ "ONAMA". - Manthan Awards 2013
  31. ^ "Interactive Museum : e-Culture and Heritage". Manthan Awards 2012
  32. ^ "Megh Sushrut : e-Health".- Manthan Awards 2013
  33. ^ "National e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway : e-Infrastructure". - Manthan Awards 2012