Blockchain-based database source:

The Blockchain-based database is a combination of traditional database and distributed database where data is transacted and recorded via Database Interface[1] (also known as Compute Interface)[2] supported by multiple-layers of blockchains.[3] The database itself is shared in the form of an encrypted/immutable ledger which makes the information open for everyone.[4]


In actual case, the blockchain essentially has no querying abilities when compared to traditional database and with a doubling of nodes, network traffic quadruples with no improvement in throughput, latency, or capacity.[5] To overcome these shortcomings, taking a traditional database and adding blockchain features to it sounds more feasible.[6] That's how the concept of Blockchain-based database came into existence which consists of multiple member clouds riding on two primary layers, the first one is Database Interface and the second one is the Blockchain Anchoring.[1]

List of Blockchain-based databases[edit]

This list consists of the databases which are developed and deployed through a traditional database model over a blockchain framework;[5]

Sr.No. Blockchain-based Database Base Traditional Database Type of Traditional Database Consensus Mechanism Decentralization Immutability
1 BigchainDB MongoDB (NoSQL) Document-oriented database[7] Raft consensus algorithm
2 Cassandra NoSQL Key-value database Paxos algorithm
3 ChainifyDB PostgreSQL Relational database[8] Whatever-Ledger Consensus
4 CovenantSQL SQLite Relational database[9] Raft consensus algorithm
5 Modex BCDB Microsoft SQL, NoSQL Multi-model database[10] Proof of authority-based consensus algorithm
6 Postchain SQL Relational database[11] Byzantine fault tolerance-based consensus algorithm
7 ProvenDB MongoDB (NoSQL) Document-oriented database[12] -



  1. ^ a b Gaetani, Edoardo; Aniello, Leonardo; Baldoni, Roberto; Lombardi, Federico; Margheri, Andrea; Sassone, Vladimiro (2017). "Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments" (PDF). Edoardo Gaetani, Leonardo Aniello, Roberto Baldoni, Federico Lombardi, Andrea Margheri, Vladimiro Sassone. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Casino, Fran; K. Dasaklis, Thomas; Patsakisa, Constantinos (March 2019). "A systematic literature review of blockchain-based applications: Current status, classification and open issues". Telematics and Informatics. Elsevier. 36: 55–81. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2018.11.006. ISSN 0736-5853 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  3. ^ Martin, Luther. "Blockchain or relational database? How to choose the right technology for your application". TechBeacon. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  4. ^ "What is Blockchain Technology? A Step-by-Step Guide For Beginners". Blockgeeks. 19 September 2016. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  5. ^ a b Raikwar, Mayank; Gligoroski, Danilo; Velinov, Goran (2020-03-12). "Trends in Development of Databases and Blockchain". p. 1. arXiv:2003.05687 [cs.DC]. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |volume= (help)
  6. ^ Anadiotis, George. "How to use blockchain to build a database solution". ZDNet. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
  7. ^ "BigchainDB 2.0 - The Blockchain Database" (PDF). BigchainDB GmbH, Berlin, Germany. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  8. ^ "ChainifyDB: How to Blockchainify any Data Management System". Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarland University. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  9. ^ "CovenantSQL - A decentralized, trusted, high performance, SQL database with blockchain features". GitHub. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Multiple databases support". Modex. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Consortium database - Postchain engineering documents". Postchain. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  12. ^ "ProvenDB Features". ProvenDB. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  13. ^ NathanSenthil; GovindarajanChander; SarafAdarsh; SethiManish; JayachandranPraveen (2019-07-01). "Blockchain meets database". Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment. 12 (11): 1539–1552. doi:10.14778/3342263.3342632.
  14. ^ "GraphChain | Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2018". doi:10.1145/3184558.3191554. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "GraphChain: A Distributed Database with Explicit Semantics and Chained RDF Graphs". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2020-03-09.